Cancer Staging and Treatment

Cancer Staging and Treatment

by Abhishek



A variety of end points may be measured and reported from clinical studies in oncology. These may include total mortality (or survival from the initiation of therapy), cause-specific mortality, quality of life, or indirect surrogates of these three outcomes, such as disease-free survival, progression-free survival, or tumor response rate. End points may also be determined within study designs of varying strength, ranging from the gold standard -- the randomized double-blinded controlled clinical trial -- to case series experiences from nonconsecutive patients. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system of levels of evidence to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. For any given therapy, results can be ranked on each of the following two scales: (1) strength of the study design and (2) strength of the end points. Together, the two rankings give an idea of the overall level of evidence. Depending on perspective, different expert panels, professional organizations, or individual physicians may use different "cut points" of overall strength of evidence in formulating therapeutic guidelines or in taking action. However, a formal description of the level of evidence provides a uniform framework for the data, leading to specific recommendations

Chapter 1:   Cancer Staging and Treatment

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